Saturday, 3 February 2018

The ugly duckling of grape

The third stop of my wine-making gap year was Mád, a small village in Hungary’s Tokaj wine region with the most Grand Cru vineyards sites classified in 1737. The village only has three restaurants, two mini-supermarkets, one bar and it takes Sunday off. This solitary place surrounded by rolling vineyards with majestic sunrise was my home for a month where I learnt all about Aszú berries, the ugly ducking of wine, under the guidance of the Holdvölgy team - winemaker Tamás Gincsai, viticulturist Károly Erdélyi and three wonderful ‘Aszú’ ladies. These Aszú berries will be transformed to one of the most beautiful wines in the world.

Botrytis Cinerea is a mould that infects grape berries under humid condition, and it can turn into undesirable grey rot or the sought-after noble rot. For noble rot, berries must be ripened when they are infected. The misty humid mornings must then be followed by warm and sunny afternoons so affected berries can be dehydrated thus concentrating the flavours, sugar and acidity. Berries affected before they are ripened or if the weather does not cooperate, the mould will turn into grey rot. Noble rot berries shrivel like raisins and taste sweet with intense aromas. In contrast, grey rot berries are totally dried inside (imagine a paper balloon) and taste musty and sour. A bunch of grapes often consists of healthy grapes, and various degree of noble and grey rots.

A few wine regions are famous for their noble rot sweet wine but I have to say Tokaj is the region that really masters the art of noble rot winemaking. Tokaj makes different styles of wine from botrytis grapes at different stages of development therefore pickings are extremely selective. Any one parcel of vines is picked a few times during the harvest season. Picking is a long process, naturally done by hand and with cautious. At Holdvölgy, a 26ha wine estate, the 2017 harvest began on 30th August and lasted until mid November. I experienced first-hand picking of the botrytis grapes for every style of wine.

Grapes for sparkling and dry wines were picked first. Only healthy bunches were picked and botrytis-affected berries were removed on site. This was followed by grapes for late harvest wine, which were picked a couple of weeks later. The grapes were slightly over-ripen with some noble rot berries. However, only bunches with around 20% noble rot berries were selected and all grey-rot berries from the bunches had to be discarded. The wine is sweet with intense ripe fruits aromas and a hint of botrytis bouquet, similar to an Auslese from Germany.

Szamorondni is a Polish word meaning ‘as it is’. It is a traditional style of Tokaji wine that is made from grape bunches picked as they are, including both healthy and noble rot berries with various degree of botrytis. It can be dry or sweet. Grape bunches with less noble rot berries are used to make dry Szamorondni, while those with more noble rot berries are used to make the sweet Szamorondni. Holdvölgy made both styles in 2017 and these grapes were picked at different time when winemaker Tamás reckoned the grape bunches were ready for the style of wine he had in mind.

Holdvölgy planted all six permitted grape varieties in Tokaj: the well-known Furmint, Hárslevelü and Sárgamuskotály (Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains), as well as the lesser-known Zéta, Kabar and Kövérszölö. They ripen at different time with Zéta being the first and Furmint the last. Picking started at sunrise and viticulturist Károly would tell the team what to pick - healthy bunches of Hárslevelü only with no botrytis berries, Sárgamuskotály bunches with 20% or 50% noble rot, or pick all Furmint except those with more than 80% botrytis bunches. Károly followed the weather forecast closely as it could change the harvest plan. For example, if rain or cloudy weather were forecasted in the next few days, noble rot development would slow and more grey rot could develop. In any case, removal of grey rot berries was absolutely necessary. It is easy to differentiate the bad rot from the good one when there are only two berries but believe me, it is confusing when you have to look for them in a bunch. I had to use all my senses - sight, smell and taste to make sure I did the job properly.

And those were the easy pickings.

The most time consuming was the picking of Aszú berries, the heavily botrytis, raisin-like berries. Berries are picked individually only when they achieve the level of botrytis equivalent to over 500g/l sugar (around 27% potential alcohol). Different grape varieties and bunches/berries develop botrytis at different speed therefore each bunch has to be visited a few times before all the berries are picked - a painstakingly long and slow process. While the picking team was busy selecting the bunches to pick, the three ‘Aszú’ ladies at Holdvölgy would patiently pick the ‘ready’ berries, about 40 kg on average per day (a bunch of grape weighs around 1kg). They would do so every day during the entire harvest season until the last Aszú berries were picked.

Tokaji, the king of wines, is made in a unique way different from other noble rot sweet wine. Sauternes is made the sweet Szamorondni way using a mix of healthy and noble rot grapes; while Beerenauslese (BA) and Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA) are made only with botrytis affected berries. In both cases, grapes are pressed and only the juice is fermented. Tokaji is made by macerating Aszú berries in fermenting or finished base wine from 10 hours to a few days before they are pressed and continued to ferment. This skin contact method similar to that in red wine making extracts more flavours from the raisin berries. The wine is therefore extremely rich and complex. The sweetness of the wine depends on the amount of Aszú berries added to the base wine, traditionally measured in puttonyos. Tokaji 3 puttonyos has at least 60g/l residual sugar, and Tokaji 6 puttonyos has a minimum of 150g/l residual sugar. The Hungarian grapes have high natural acidity and the dehydration process also concentrates the acidity therefore Tokaji always has an incredible fresh finish no matter how sweet the wine is.

Unfortunately, after World War II during the Communist era, state-owned Tokaj producers flooded the market with inferior sweet wine. The wine, heavily oxidised and often artificially sweetened, was labelled with various puttonyos. According to Gergely Somogyi, editor of, the 70s and 80s were the darkest period of Tokaji wine. In the late 1990s after Hungary became a republic, independent wineries re-established in Tokaj with the aim of reviving the industry. In 2014, the Tokaji Trade Council eliminated the 3 and 4 puttonyos categories, and introduced the new quality level, Tokaji Aszú, for the 5 and 6 puttonyos categories. The term puttonyos was therefore officially abolished. For a wine to be named Tokaji Aszú, it must have at least 120g/l residual sugar. Wineries welcomed the change as part of a renaissance for the Tokaj region.

Tokaj was the first wine region to be demarcated in 1737 and the Mád basin has the highest number of Grand Cru sites of mostly volcanic soil. The story of Holdvölgy, translated as moon valley, began with a one-hectare vineyard in the Nyúläszó Grand Cru site in Mád, a birthday present from Pascal Demko’s mother to his father. Pascal, a trained lawyer with a passion for wine, slowly acquired more land and eventually made his first wine in 2006 from 26ha of vineyard in seven Grand Cru sites in Mád. Today, the estate produces two ranges of wine: Holdvölgy with a elegant and classy label, and Hold And Hollo, an eye-catching, stylish label for casual occasions and cool consumers.

The quality of Holdvölgy award-winning wine is without doubt. Both ranges are being served in fine dining restaurants and trendy bars in Europe; and Hong Kong sommeliers and wine lovers are asking for them. Having spent a month with the team, one word that constantly popped in my mind about Holdvölgy is precision. From grape picking to wine labelling, every process is immaculately carried out to convey the essences of the estate and its wines. Vision is a dry white blend of Furmint, Hárslevelü and Kabar that defined the house style; while Signature is a sweet blend combining various Tokaji winemaking techniques such as but not limited to late harvest, Szamorondni and Aszú, that Pascal compared to free style figure skating - freedom to express using highly skilled techniques. The other wines are called Meditation, Exaltation, Eloquence and so on - names that reflected exactly what are in the bottles. Even the easy-going Hold And Hollo range is presented in a highly orderly manner where the capsule, the silicon label and the bottle are all aligned.

Some people compare winemakers to artists but I would say Holdvölgy is more like a designer, which probably comes from Pascal’s professional training.The team creates beautiful wine and communicates it effectively to the customers. Looking from the other way, customers have high expectations after seeing the bottles and they are not let down by the content. Artists can be emotional whereas designers are unambiguous but both achieve perfection in different ways.

Holdvölgy wine is not available in Hong Kong or China yet. I have no doubt both ranges will be well-received by consumers. Hold And Hollo label will be a hit if marketed right. All Pascal needs is a far-sighted partner who shares his vision.

Monday, 15 January 2018

Douro and Mosel, similar yet so different...

Two of the most famous wine regions along the rivers are probably the Douro in Portugal and the Mosel in Germany. Both have similar topography - winding rivers, steep slopes with altitude between 400 and 600m planted with vines, and of course spectacular scenery. However, this is where the similarities end. The differences in climate, soil and grape varieties make the wines produced in these two regions a world apart. After spending a few weeks in the Douro Valley, I went straight to the Mosel. It was fascinating to compare and contrast these two regions, learning and understanding why their wines are so different.
Top: Douro; Bottom: Mosel 
First let’s look at the Douro. The river is nearly 900km long flowing from Spain but only the last 200km is in Portugal. The wine region, also called Alto Douro, is situated to the east of Marão Mountains and stretched nearly to the border of Spain. The three sub-regions from west to east are Baixo Corgo, Cima Corgo and Douro Superior. The climate is largely continental with hot, dry summers and cold winters. Rainfall drops progressively from west to east with around 1,200mm per annum in Baixo Corgo to 700mm in Cima Corgo and down to less than 400mm in Douro Superior. The soil is mainly schist, stony, poor and with good drainage. The Douro is the world’s largest area of mountain vineyard, and is one of the wildest wine regions in Portugal, if not the world. Although harsh, wine has been made in the region for over 2,000 years and the vineyards were demarcated in 1756. The Douro was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2001 because of its historic, narrow, stone-walled vine terraces.

Turning to Mosel, a tributary of the Rhine and only 545km long, also has some 200km flowing in Germany. Vineyards are found along this stretch of Mosel River and its tributaries, the Saar and Ruwer. The region is divided into Southern Mosel, Middle Mosel and Lower Mosel (also known as Terraced Mosel). It is pretty much at the other end of the climate spectrum comparing to the Douro with cool summers and mild winters where average annual temperature is around 10ºC across the entire region. Annual rainfall is between 670mm in Lower Mosel and 900mm in Southern Mosel. Soil varies in the region, from gravels and sands on flat land to quartzite sandstones in Lower Mosel. The 400 million old Devonian slate in all colours: blue, grey, brown and red, can be found in half of the vineyards. Mosel is the world’s biggest steep slopes wine region (over 18º, 30%), with the steepest one at 67º.

Top: Port vineyard close to river in the Douro;
 Bottom: Ürziger Würzgarten in Mose
In the Douro, temperature and rainfall, not soil, are the deciding factors of viticulture. Port is made from ripe and concentrated grapes, and top quality port vineyards have often been planted on the lower slopes in the deep, hotter and drier Douro valley, where the yield is low. These days, producers may plant red varieties on north facing slopes or at higher altitude (300 to 400m) to produce fresher grapes for blending. Recently, some wineries are experimenting with international white varieties such as Sauvignon Blanc and Gewürztraminer planted at around 500m above sea level with encouraging results; and there is even a sparkling wine producer with vineyards on the high slopes of Alto Douro.

In contrast, the climate in the Mosel region is fairly similar but the many different soil types make it possible to produce wine of different expressions. Riesling and slate are made for each other. Blue slate Riesling highlights the minerality while red slate Riesling has more stone fruits aromas. The famous Grand Cru site, Ürziger Würzgarten with red volcanic rocks, gives Riesling a distinctive spicy flavour. Müller-Thurgau thrives on the gavel and sand, while the Pinots - both Weissburguder (Pinot Blanc) and Spätburgunder (Pinot Noir) are at home on limestone and marl soils. However, because of its cool climate, no vineyards are planted on the north-facing slopes.

Top: Building patamares in the Douro;
Bottom: Steep slope harvester in Mosel 
Both wine regions face challenging conditions in planting vines on slopes. In the Douro, terraces, both the narrow ancient walled terraces with only one or two rows of vines and the more recent, broader patamares (platforms) are necessary on steeper slopes, while vinha ao alto (vertical vineyard) where rows of vines on wires running up and down the slopes is the preferred technique on gentler slopes of around 20º (30%). In the Mosel, vertical plantings using wires can often be seen on slopes steeper than 20º and monorails are used for transporting materials up and down the slopes. Only on the steepest slopes are terraced vineyards. Vines on recently planted vineyards, whether vertical plantings or on terraces, are trained on wires but in older vineyards, vines were planted individually with a stake and trellised in Mosel Arch, where two canes are bent into heart shape, to prevent soil erosion. Because of the terrain, only limited mechanisation can be used and harvest is totally done by hand in both regions. Having said that, a German company has developed an award-winning steep slope harvester in 2016 that can work on both slopes up around 35º, and narrow terraces. A producer in the Douro has bought the machine and a few Mosel wineries rented it for the 2017 harvest. Since it is more and more difficult to get manpower for harvest, and that the machine can pick gently and a lot faster than man (it works as fast as 40 people), it won’t be a surprise that more wineries will opt for at least partial machine harvest in these regions.

Top: Touriga Nacional in the Douro;
Bottom: Riesling in Mosel 
As for grape varieties and wine styles, the majority in the Douro are indigenous grapes where some 30 of them can be used to make port, a fortified wine where the best can be aged for over 100 years. Still wine, predominately red, has been made in the region for a long time but it was only in the last 20 years or so that it was being noticed. Today, a few producers focus on producing still wine (both red and white) and some even experiment with international aromatic white varieties planted at high altitude. Blending is essential for port but most still wine are also blended from different local varieties. In Mosel, on the other hand, over 90% wine is white of which 2/3 is Riesling, and nearly all wine is 100% single varietal. Riesling grown on different soils has different expressions and it can be made in sparkling and from dry to sweet. The rare sweet wine, Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA), like port, can age gracefully for over 100 years.

Both regions have spectacular scenery but again in opposite spectrum. Vineyards in Douro are remote and rugged. On top of the vineyards, you either feel you are very small or you own the whole world depending on your state of mind. But on most Mosel vineyards, you enjoy the space while the view of village, and therefore civilisation, is always in sight.

Most wine lovers are aware of the facts above but it’s an inspiration to be in both places at the same time. I was in the Douro making and tasting big red wine only five days before I was in Mosel making and tasting the delicate Riesling. Both regions make fantastic wine and I think this is the best illustration of terroir - a combination of climate, soil, geography and man (to plant the right varieties in the right place).

Luckily, both regions are tourist-friendly. Plan your next holiday in one of the regions or even better, visit both regions and see for yourself the contrast like I did.

Top: Vila Nova de Gaia;
Bottom: Traben-Trarbach
Vila Nova de Gaia, just across the city of Porto, is a mecca for port lovers where major port houses age their wines in lodges. Cellar tours and tastings designed for all levels of engagement are offered, and you can pamper yourself in The Yeatman, a luxury wine hotel and spa in Porto with spectacular views over the UNESCO World Heritage city and the Douro River; or enjoy Northern Portuguese cuisine at Vinum Restaurant & Wine Bar in the Graham’s Lodge. It is easy to do a day trip to Pinhão in the heart of the Douro to visit a few more port houses and wineries. However, the best is to spend a few days in the valley and take the boat cruise to admire the vineyards from river level.

As for Mosel, numerous villages dotted along the river and and there are always cellar doors/wineries in or very close to villages that welcome wine lovers. If you are there during harvest, you can try federweisser (fermenting grape juice) in some wineries. You can hop on and off boats to visit these historical villages, notably Cochem, Traben-Trarbach and Bernkastel-Kues. For the energetic ones, go cycle along the river or hike up one of the steep vineyard sites.

Tuesday, 12 December 2017

An Aussie in the Mosel-land

The second stop of my journey was Mosel in Germany. However, I was not with a typical Mosel winery.

Martin Cooper is an Australian winemaker who used to make wine in Margaret River but now he is making Riesling in Mosel. Asked why the move? Martin explained that he has always been the ‘Old World’ guy, and that people often compared his wine to those of Burgundian Chardonnay and Rhone Syrah. Since Riesling is the pinnacle of wine, he therefore decided he should be in Germany, the home of Riesling.

Martin believes that only extreme terroir produces serious wine because wine resonates the environment where it acquires its fingerprint. Therefore, wine produces from a region that grows various grape varieties, though well made, does not really have an identity. Of all Germany’s wine regions, he loves Mosel because it is the region with extreme terroir, steep slopes and marginal climate; and it focuses only on one variety, Riesling. In 2014, Martin took the plunge and teamed up with Kloster Ebernach, a working monastery for the mentally handicapped in the historical town of Cockhem in Mosel. The monastery has been making wine since 1673.

Martin practices biodynamic viticulture to fully express terroir. A lot of winemakers try to explain biodynamic farming but Martin interprets in a different way. He said plants are intelligent but reactive. Therefore, when treated with fertilisers and herbicides, they become lazy. Biodynamic promotes biodiversity but also encourages diseases. Vines therefore have to protect themselves from being attacked by producing more phenol, resulting in thicker and stronger skin. In winemaking, phenol is a positive attribute therefore wine made from grapes with higher phenol concentration has more complexity. He even compared this to human being - that over protected children are likely to become weak adults.

Probably because of his Australian training, Martin does not believe in biodynamic winemaking as it is unpredictable and has a high risk of volatility. He does, however, use minimum dosage of chemicals, and play with spontaneous yeast fermentation in amphorae.

I had a chance to work with Martin and his small team for a short period during 2017 harvest. He is self-confident, creative, yet a bit unorganised although in a positive way. His characters reflect in his wine. He makes all styles of Riesling from sparkling to sweet and also experiments with orange Riesling. The first vintage of his orange wine spent 40 days on skin, and he increased this to 300 days for the second vintage, then scaled back to 180 days for the 2016 vintage. The wine is refreshing with orange peel aroma, like drinking a pleasant cold tea in a summer day and its goes well with some strong flavoured food. Martin has three ranges of wine each with its own label, nice on its own but somehow doesn’t really convey the wine and
also lacks the common identity. However, don’t dismiss the wine because of the labels, the content is what counts.

Like most vintners in Mosel, Weingut Kloster Ebernach is a small producer but Martin is nevertheless watching out for more vineyards on the steep slopes. He is also looking for a partner that shares his vision. Anyone who fancies the idea of making wine in extreme terroir may want to have a chat with Martin.

While the quality of wine is the most important, it is the story behind the label that gets the attention of consumers. The adventure of a lone Aussie on the Mosel terraced slopes is certainly a unique story.

Monday, 20 November 2017

The Making of Chryseia

Being a winemaker and having been taking part in more than ten harvests, I always love going back to vineyards, getting my hands dirty with grapes and juice and learning tricks from winemakers. Therefore I am taking one year off to make wine around the world: Douro (Portugal), Mosel (Germany), Tokaji (Hungary), Sussex (England), Stellenbosch and Elgin (South Africa), McLaren Vale (Australia) and New Zealand. I will be sharing my journey and experience here.

When mentioning Douro, most of lovers will think about Port. However, Douro has been making still wine long before Port was created. The success of Port in the past 200 years meant that still wine was somehow neglected. Some winemakers started producing red wine earnest 30 years but its rustic style was not what wine lovers preferred.

Therefore 20 years ago in1998 when the Symington family, who owns some of the finest port houses including Cockburn’s, Dow’s, Graham’s and Warre’s, toyed with the idea of making still red wine, they decided to seek outside help rather than doing it on its own. Bruno Prats, a long time friend because of the Primum Familiae Vini (Leading Wine Families) connection, has just sold his Chateau Cos D’Estournel at that time. Since Bruno has always considered the Douro as one of the greatest terroir because of the long agebility or Port wine, therefore when James Symington discussed with him about the project, the two clicked. The joint venture, Prats & Symington (P+S), was established in 1999. The idea was to make an elegant Bordeaux style wine using the Douro varieties. Symington would provide the grapes and Bruno the expertise.

The result? Chryseia 2001, its second vintage, made into the Top 100 in Wine Spectator 2003. Since then, the portfolio has expanded to include Post Scriptum and Prazo de Roriz. Post Scriptum, PS in short because it is the wine after Chryseia, was launched in 2002, a difficult year where the grapes were not good enough for Chryseia, hence it is also nick named Baby Chryseia. Prazo de Roriz was released in 2009 after the company purchased Quinta de Roriz, now home of Chryseia. The quinta, located at the south bank of the Douro River with a spectacular view of the river, has a history dating back to 1764 and even a chapel on site, complements Chryseia’s image and philosophy. Ten years on, Chryseia 2011 was ranked Number 3 in Wine Spectator Top 100 2014. It is considered one of the best still red wine from the Douro.

I had the opportunity to have participated at the Quinta de Roriz 2017 harvest, talked to Bruno Prats, Symington Chairman Paul, Symington Douro Still Winemaker Pedro Correia, and worked with Luis Coelho, the ‘man’ behind Chryseia, and his team. It was tough with 12 hours per day for three weeks but the experience and insight worth the effort.

So what are the secrets behind Chryseia?

The first and ultimate is vineyard and grape varieties selection. Quinta de Roriz and Quinta de Perdiz, both located in Cima Corgo (the middle part of the Douro Valley) but with different facings, provide the ingredients for the wine. The grapes are of Grade A quality if they were to be made into Port. Although there are other varieties in the vineyards, only Touriga Nacional and Touriga Franca (also known as Touriga Francesca) go into Chryseia as Bruno believes these are the varieties best suited to make outstanding wine in the Douro. Jancis Robinson compared them with Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc.

Next is the fermentation process. Traditional  Douro red wine is made similar to Port with high extraction. The wine therefore is not as refined. To ensure Chryseia is elegant with ageing potential, fully ripen grapes are fermented under controlled temperature with a long post fermentation maceration period. In this case, only desirable phenols, rather than harsh tannins, are extracted. The wine, still in contact with skin, continues to evolve, developing the mid-palate and forming the structure. The important task of winemaker is to decide when to press. Tasting the wine everyday with Luis was a fascinating experience to witness the creation of the wine. It is like slow cooking, the chef needs to constantly taste the food to avoid over-cooking.

Wine destined for Chryseia at this stage, is then transferred to new barrel for ageing. Bruno explained the winemaking process of Chryseia up to this stage is pretty similar to making a first class Bordeaux. The only difference is the size of barrel. 400l barrels are used rather than the 225 Bordeaux barriques because the Douro grape varieties have more fruit expression compared to the Bordeaux counterpart. Too much oak will over-dominate the fruit character. Bruno summed up, Bordeaux wine emphasises structure and it must age before drinking, whereas Chryseia is more expressive that can be accessible when young but it can also age. Chryseia only has 17 years winemaking history but Bruno is confident that it can age for at least 20 years. His son, head of LVMH wine estate Jean Guillames, recently tried the first vintage Chryseia 2000 and remarked the wine was still very fresh. Incidentally, I also tasted Chryseia 2000 before I headed to the Douro and definitely it has not passed the peak yet.

The final key is blending. The team, led by Bruno and Charles, will taste all the barrels and select the final blend of Chryseia in winter and spring the following year. If the wine was not up to their standard, no Chryseia will be made, as in the case of vintage 2002. On the other hand, only limited quantity of Chryseia is made even in an exceptional year. The components that don’t make into Chryseia will be used for the second wine Post Scriptum. This means that the best years of Chryseia are also the best years for Post Scriptum.

While the above are all critical to making a great wine, I strongly feel, after working at the estate, that team effort is a major contributor. At Quinta de Roriz, a team of some 20 pickers select and only pick the best bunches under the blazing sun. When the grapes arrive at the cellar, another team of 10 people sort the grapes first by bunches and then by berries to get rid of leaves, dried grapes and unripe berries from going into the fermentation tanks. And of course there are also colleagues managing the fermentation tasks. As most of us work, eat and sleep at the quinta, we are being looked after by Ana and her mother, taking care of our meals and even laundry. Luis understands team spirit well.  At the beginning of harvest, he conducted a tasting to the team, explained the philosophy of the wine so we all knew our work does matter and treated us  to the harvest dinner. The best, however, was the end of vintage leitao (yummy home-roasted baby pig) party, cooked by Luis himself. Even though we worked 12 hours everyday, everyone was energetic and looked forward to the next picking day.

Bruno and the Symington Family have the vision to create the best still red wine in the Douro; Pedro and Luis execute the vision, and the team does the ‘work’. A great wine is not only made by one person alone, but the entire team.

Prats & Symington Wine, including Chryseia, Post Scriptum and Prazo de Roriz, are available at Watson’s Wine, Hong Kong
Vino Veritas, Macau
Fleur de Paris, Shenzhen, China